Changes in fibroblast growth factor 21 and growth differentiation factor 15 in patients with migraine

  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) are typically elevated in patients with metabolic or mitochondrial disorders. This study investigated whether the presence of migraine may influence FGF-21 and GDF-15 serum levels considering metabolic disorders as possible confounders.
  • Results from this study indicate higher serum levels of FGF-21 and GDF-15 in people with migraine (n=221) than healthy controls (n=124). FGF-21 levels were notably higher among people with chronic migraine (n=68) than those with episodic migraine (n=153). Moreover, higher Headache Impact Test and Migraine Disability Assessment scores were associated with higher levels of FGF-21 and GDF-15.
  • According to the authors, migraine sufferers have elevated levels of serum GDF-15 and FGF-21 and this is associated with disease severity.